+ Phase-II-support-Pathology


Complete support in necropsy, histotechnology, microscopic evaluation and pathology interpretation for all our toxicology and carcinogenicity studies

Our pathology department provides a complete support service for all the company’s toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. Its activities cover necropsy, histopathological processing, microscopic evaluation and pathology interpretation.


We also offer a comprehensive contract service to many international pharmaceutical and chemical companies operating their own animal testing but relying on external professional support to maximise efficiency or to meet scheduling demands.

All work is continually delivered to the highest quality standards, which is achieved by our rigorous in-house quality control programs and highly skilled, experienced technicians and pathologists.

We believe in partnerships with our customers, both internally and externally, which results in a personal, professional service from a team who understand the business and the science.

Pathology Services


Performed by trained technicians in purpose built suites, necropsies are supervised by experienced pathologists in separate facilities for rodents and non-rodents. Data are entered directly onto a dedicated pathology system


A highly efficient laboratory with automated technology can handle over 500,000 tissues a year. Fully trained staff and intrinsic quality systems ensure the work is produced to the highest standard

  • Specialised Procedures
  • Frozen sectioning
  • Serial sectioning
  • Step sectioning
  • Specialised embedding
  • Photomicrography
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Morphometric analysis
  • Cell proliferation assays
  • Special stains
  • Archive ready packaging of residual wet tissues
  • Microscopic Evaluation

Sequani toxicological pathologists with significant combined experience amounting to over 80 years. The qualifications of the pathologists are detailed below.

  • Over 30 Years non clinical pathology experience, with particular expertise in neurological pathology, developmental pathology and special stains. BDS(Edin) DipRCPath (Tox) FRCPath
  • Over 30 Years experience, with particular experience in upper and lower respiratory tract in rodent and in non rodent species PhD DipRCPath (Tox) FRCPath

  • Over 5 Years non clinical pathology experience, with particular interest and expertise in male and female reproductive system, endocrine disruption, and ophthalmology.  DVM, MRCVS

  • Over 30 Years experience,  with particular expertise in early markers of carcinogenicity, reproductive/ developmental anomalies and target organ toxicity, regulatory studies, BSc, B. Vet Med, PhD, MRCVS, FRCVS

  • Over 17 Years experience in drug discovery and development, particular interest and skills in preclinical and translational pharmaceutical efficacy/safety assessment, toxicologic endocrinology, cardiology, and oncology, BVSc, MRCVS, FRCPath, DiplACVP

Statistical analysis is overseen by one of the leading UK experts in this field. Sequani pathologists have special expertise in respiratory, endocrine, cardiovascular, ocular and dermal pathology, carcinogenicity studies, transgenic mice, juvenile organ development and toxicity in the juvenile brain.

Foetal Evaluation

A dedicated team of foetal morphologists, with vast experience in all aspects of foetal evaluation, undertakes all of the skeletal, and Bouins examination from studies undertaken at Sequani which ensures that we have consistency in reporting levels.  Single and double skeletal staining techniques are fully validated and routinely performed using our suite of Shandon Pathcentre Teratology Processors.

Sperm Analysis

We have the expertise and equipment to provide extensive analysis of sperm morphology, motility and concentration in rats.  We use the Hamilton Thorne TOX IVOS software to produce reports detailing percentage motility and a range of velocity parameters from live epididymal samples as well as concentration data from both epididymal samples and homogenisation resistant spermatids from the testis.  In addition we perform a differential morphological analysis detailing any gross abnormalities.

Ovarian Follicle Counts

We can perform counts for naked oocytes and small and medium follicles in serial ovarian sections taken from the rat.   This can be achieved using standard Haematoxylin and Eosin staining or using immunohistochemical staining for PCNA.


  • Method feasibility
  • Method validation
  • Slide preparation and evaluation


  • Necropsy
  • Histology
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Peer Review

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